1980 - Page 2
Teversal Colliery Closed After 111 years
Teversal colliery (North Nottinghamshire) sunk in 1867-1869 was closed in July 1980 after 111 years.
Originally 2 small 10 feet (3.05m) diameter shafts had been started by Whitehouse and Co in 1866 and they ran out of capital, and then partly sunk during 1867-1868 by Crompton, Newton and Co who had taken over.
Crompton was a banker and on the Board of the Stanton Iron Co. He too sold out and Stanton Iron Co took over the mine on 12th October 1868. They halted the sinking and widened the Downcast shaft to 14’ 0” (4.27m) diameter from the top then carried on sinking but kept the Upcast shaft at 10' 0" (3.05m) diameter. This shaft was referred to as Shonkey pit as it only had one cage and a counter balance weight. No tubbing was inserted in either shaft even though it was on the edge of the Permian water-bearing measures and the Upcast shaft was always running with water and slime and the garlands to catch the water and pipe it to the pit bottom sump were always overflowing and the pipes eventually almost closed up with lime scale. Some of the water would be due to the warm air at the top of the shaft condensing when reaching cold air. The pit was called Teversall No1 and 2 (Silver Hill being called Teversall originally in 1868). This is where confusion arises regarding the name and sinking dates as this was a Stanton Iron Co pit from the start. (Refer to Silverhill abandoned Mar 1993).
The pit was sunk by the site of a small coppice named Butcher Wood, northwest of Teversal village. The significant date of 2nd February 1871 at both pits for the Top Hard is shown on the plans when a survey was done of all the workings by Richard G Coke. The pits were collectively known as Teversal Collieries and owned by the Countess of Carnarvon. Probably this was the date when Stanton Iron Works Co Ltd purchased the pits as they were now listed as Teversall No1 (Butcher Wood) and Teversall No2 (Silver Hill) Collieries. At Butcher Wood Colliery from commencement in 1869 to 24th June 1870 some 5 acres 0 roods and 6 poles in area of coal was worked and from June 1870 to 2nd February 1871 the figure was 11 acres 0 roods and 15 poles. The expansion of the workings is clearly shown and the manpower must have risen quickly to accommodate this.
As a comparison at Silver Hill from commencement in 1869 some 4 acres 2 roods and 10 perches were worked to 24th June 1870 and from June 1870 to 2nd February 1871 there was a decrease in extraction to 3 acres 2 roods and 2 poles, possibly showing that men were being transferred to Butcher Wood pit. Royalties would have been paid on these figures calculated by Richard G Coke the Surveyor. At both pits naked lights (candles) were used for illumination and smoking was allowed underground until 1923 when flame safety lamps were issued to all the underground labour force.
The name of the pit as shown on the plan was Butcher Wood but the name was changed again to Teversall later albeit that the name Butcherwood or ‘Butcher’ would last forever locally even after it had closed. The spelling of the colliery strangely varied as Teversal but was generally Teversall until about 1927.
Shaft positions: SK46SE No1 shaft 447588, 362130, No2 shaft 447605, 362122, at 530 feet (161.5m) above sea level. 8,300 acres of Top Hard were leased and 6,500 acres above and below Top Hard.
The UC or Shonkey pit remained at 10 feet (3.05m) diameter. Both shafts had 9” (0.23m) brickwork with no tubbing. It was said that Top Hard coal was reached on the same day 2nd April 1869 at 217 yards (198m) as the inundation at Molyneux pit nearby. Sinking at both shafts continued down to the Dunsil seam at 246 yards (225m).
In the Upcast pit bottom there was a snicket leading to a roadway behind the shaft which was possibly to a proposed furnace position. However as stated a new modern ventilation fan was installed whereas at Silver Hill (Teversall No2) a furnace was used for the ventilation of the mine workings until 1896. Although stated that there was 4”water gauge pressure due to leakage through doors etc by the time the air reached the North dips road, only a few hundred yards from the shaft the reading was down to 2½”. There were only 2 doors between the intake and return airways in the pit bottom and these were constantly being opened and leakage was necessary in order to take the pressure off a bit so that you could open them. In other words the reduction in pressure started there only yards from the DC shaft. After travelling inbye for about ¼ mile the pressure was down to ½ inch of water gauge showing the amount of air leakage there was in the pit bottom area.
A plan showing the workings of both Teversall pits in the 1870s states that the collieries belonged to the Countess of Carnarvon.
The original steam winding engines at the DC drawing shaft had 2 horizontal cylinders 30” (0.76m) x 60” (1.52m) fitted with ordinary side valves, with a plain drum 14 ft (4.27m) dia. 4 tubs of 11 cwts were raised and loaded and unloaded simultaneously at 2 deckings. The tubs had 12” (0.30m) steel wheels with box pedestals containing sufficient oil for 4 days and the gauge of the road was 18½” (0.47m) originally. Wire conductors 4 per cage tensioned by weights in the pit bottom sump. These were continually under water (see later). Output about 1,000 tons per day.
The Upcast shaft engine had 2 horizontal cylinders 18” (0.46m) x 42” (1.0m) geared 1:3 and a 9 ft (2.74m) plain drum. The shaft was used for winding men but in the case of an accident was at the DC drawing shaft.
The output was screened by coal delivered onto a moving band via double side tipplers. The coal was sorted by men and boys, the various qualities being thrown into the respective wagons below down a chute. Very little dirt was sent out in the early days. The arrangements were very similar to those at Pleasley and the parts were interchangeable if needed.
Two compressors on the surface sent compressed air down the shaft in 11” (0.28m) pipes and thence on to the air hauling engines 1,400 yards (1,280m) on the North Level through 10” (0.25m) and a further 800 yards (730m) in 5” (0.13m) pipes to a pump in the dip workings to the East.
The steam condensing hauling engine placed near the DC shaft in a chamber under the North plane worked 2 planes by endless rope, the North plane being 1,250 yards (1,145m) and the South plane 1,700 yards (1,555m). Sets of 20 tubs or more were fastened to the 7/8” steel moving rope by short patent clips.
Another steam condensing engine was fixed a short distance south of the shaft at 45lb steam pressure and worked a dip plane some 800 yards (730m) to NE dipping at between 1in6 to 1in8 and hauled 16 tubs in one run. An air hauling engine rope was used across 800 yards (730m) at the extremity of the North Level to deliver 10 tubs per run to the North Level and then outbye. A compressed air pump on the North side lifted water 342 ft (102m) to the top of the plane where it gravitated down a ricket gate to the No2 Shonkey pit bottom.
All water made in the pit was raised to the surface by a Hawthorn and Davey steam engine placed at the bottom of the UC shaft and by ram pump raised 220 gallons per min through 6” (0.15m) mains. A Tangye engine placed near it was in reserve, such was the need for the amount of water that needed to be pumped continuously.
8 Lancashire and 2 Cornish boilers on the surface provided the steam to the winders and underground engines.
The ventilation was provided by a 16 ft (4.9m) dia x 26½ ft (8.0m) wide Capell fan, single inlet, being one of the earliest in the area.
The steam winding engines were in piggy back formation, the Shonkey shaft engine being underside the DC steam engine until electrification in the 1960s when a new winding house was built on the opposite side for the DC shaft and the pulley wheels adjusted to the other side of the headgear platform.
The new No1 winder was a 1,450hp electric motor winding double-deck cages with 2 x 1 ton tubs per deck. No2 shaft had a new 100hp electric motor in the original engine house. The pulley wheels were only about 10’ 0” diameter also and it was a very slow ride in the shaft. As stated one of the earliest Capell fans installed in 1890 was replaced in Oct 1961 and the water gauge was increased from 2½” (0.06m) to 7¾” (0.20m) dramatically increasing the air flow round the workings.
New Mine Fan
It was increased and tried at 9” (0.23m) but that proved too strong and had to be baffled down. In fact a team including the Manager George Noble descended the Shonkey shaft to note the difference following the installation of the new fan. It was comical really because they could not get out of the cage due to the increased pressure and all the papers, dust and other bits had been whipped up in the airstream and the party were covered from head to toe. When the cage was in the pit bottom it almost covered the inset so the air was whistling past through the small gap. The cage was wound back up the shaft as soon as possible.