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The Continued Rise Of The Industry
To 1913




William IV succeeded to the throne from 1830 to 1837. He had no heir and was the uncle of Queen Victoria.


Prime Ministers:

  • Earl Grey (Whig) 1830-1834.
  • Viscount Melbourne (Whig) 1834.
  • Sir Robert Peel (Tory) 1834-1835.

New Railway

The Cromford and High Peak Railway opened in 1830.  Steep inclines were worked using steel ropes and a static engine to haul the trucks.

Collieries Sunk or Opened 1830

  • Ashgate (John G Barnes)
  • Birchwood (Humphrey Goodwin)
  • Cottom (Cottam?) (Appleby and Co) sinking
  • Handley 1,2,3 (?)
  • Kilburn (John Ray) 1828-1830, opened
  • Newbold (T Wearmouth)
  • Portland No 3 and 4 pit (Butterley Co) was sunk in the Erewash Valley
  • Peggs Green (Edward Price) (near Coleorton) sunk to 600 feet
  • Pit at Smotherfly 43 yards (39m) deep (?)
  • Upper Birchwood (J Poundall) sinking
  • Wood pit (Skegby Colliery Co) ? sunk in the Meden Valley in 1830-1832 to the Top Hard seam
  • Woodhouse Lane (Rhodes) to Top Hard. 

Attempts were made by the Harpur-Crewe family of Calke Abbey to mine coal between Smisby and Ticknall but they failed

Nibble and Clink

Atmospheric Steam Engine

It has been stated it is possible that Nibland Clink or ‘Nibble and Clink’ was sunk at this time to the Dunsil seam, in the upper Meden Valley (Nottinghamshire) as an old photograph later (of about 1855) when it is assumed the mine was closed, shows that an atmospheric steam engine was used there.  The pit used a flat hemp winding rope as was normal at the time but it also had a chain attachment, which led to its name.

Fatal Accidents 1830

  • (Nottinghamshire) Samuel Taylor (44) fell down a shaft 22 Jan 1830 in the Teversal area, it could be Nibland pit, part of Skegby colliery
  • Wollaton, Joseph Shaw (40) of Trowell and another man Joseph Martin were about to descend the pit and had fastened themselves in the chains with the bonnet over their heads. Whilst waiting for lights to take down with them the whymsey somehow got out of gear and the two men hurtled down the shaft at great speed and Sampson Chambers the Whymsey driver tried to stop it but the iron guard broke and he could not control it. About half an hour later 2 men went down the shaft some 80 yards deep and found Martin standing against a corve of coal about 4 yards (3.5m) from the shaft having got free of the chains but Shaw was quite dead having been crushed under the bonnet and the rope, 11 May 1830
  • Portland (Butterley Co), William Caulton (10) so severely injured by a fall of roof that he died within 30 hours of the accident, 22 Apr 1830
  • Portland (Butterley Co), Thomas Dallison (c 40) was stripped to the waist and he and 8 others were working with candles for illumination (naked lights) as no gas had exploded in that part of the mine before. The explosion happened on 11 Aug 1830 and he was severely burnt about his upper body but did not die of his injuries until 29 Aug 1830. The inquest was held at the house of Steed Cope, butcher and shopkeeper, Portland Row, Selston.

South Derbyshire And Leicestershire

At Moira the Hastings and Grey pits were sunk about this time. Lount Colliery was at work (Sir George Howland and Willoughby Beaumont) 36 yards (33m) to 47 yards (43m) deep to a seam 4 feet (1.22m) thick.

Pits around Swannington also at work and varied between 50 yards (46m) to 150 yards (137m) to a seam 5’ 4” (1.63m) thick. Whitwick, shaft sunk 119 yards (109m) deep to a seam 4’ 3” (1.30m) thick. A new shaft was sunk at Swadlincote a short distance away from the old Deep Foundation shaft of 1804.


Estimated output for Nottinghamshire pits for 1830 was around 1,700,000 tons.

'Damped To Death'

Some old notes at the Mining Records office state that a John Mokes was ‘damped to death’ at a pit in the corner of Mansfield Close and 2 men called Smith were similarly ‘damped to death’ at a pit near Niblan(d) Bas(set) pit in the Meden Valley. (Nibland Clink as above?) Again this situation would point to the lack of ventilation air current allowing blackdamp gas to accumulate.


The population of Derbyshire had now risen to 272, 217.


All the pits in the Selston area were working the Hard Selston coal and belonged to Chris Rolleston Esq. 

Thomas Moule’s Maps

Derbyshire C 1837
Derbyshire C 1837
Thomas Moule (1784 - 1851) a most renowned Victorian mapmaker produced a wonderful set of topographical County maps for the whole of England and Wales around this time, the first ones published in 1830 as the ‘English Counties’, but unfortunately he did not depict any mining areas whatsoever.

His maps were made using steel plates, a system which had been introduced in 1820. By using this medium and with the heating and cooling of the plates far greater detail could be obtained than ever before allowing for subtle variations in hachuring and shading. The system was used by the Ordnance Survey to produce their maps.

Moule mentioned that coal was a mineral worked in Derbyshire but no specific area, other than a place called Coal Aston near Dronfield to the very north east of the county verging onto South Yorkshire. Other minerals worked were lead, marble, alabaster, mill stones, iron and a coarse crystal. Actually coal is not a mineral but a sedimentary type of rock. A major railway line is shown from Burton on Trent in Leicestershire to the south west and Nottingham to the east meeting at Derby and thence passing through the east of the county northwards to Leeds in Yorkshire.

In Leicestershire he mentioned that valuable coal mines were worked to the north west of Charnwood Forest and that the River Soar was navigable from Leicester to Loughborough.

The population was 215,867.

He mentions that in Nottinghamshire great tracts of forest had been cleared. Pit-coal was a commodity of which there was plenty, but no specific locations stated. The River Trent was the major waterway. The only railway was from Loughborough in Leicestershire passing through the very south east corner of the county up as far as Nottingham with a branch off to Derby as previously mentioned.

Collieries Closed in 1830

  • Clowne pit, (...?) Clowne seam
  • Eckington Lees or White Lane Silkstone (...?)
  • Nibland 55 yards (50m) to the Top Hard seam and Springwood (sunk 1774) to 76 yards (70m) deep were worked out by this time.  The pits were generally referred to as the Fackley pits (Skegby Colliery Co - John Dodsley).   A Bye pit and a Run In pit near to a 22 yards (20m) leap up Stubbing Hill fault were situated nearby.  A Hard coal pit was 100 yards (91m) deep. There was a Dunsell pit close by also where the Dunsil coal, although a good seam was only 30 inches (0.76m) thick and must have been between 125 yards (114m) and 130 yards (119m) deep due to the faulting
  • Riddings pit (Morewood ?) (Hard, Soft and Kilburn seams).
  • Ryefals pit sunk in 1795 to the north of South Normanton was closed. 

A plan by J Smith Surveyor, Kidsey Park, dated 1830, of Stoney Ford (Charles V Hunter Esq) near Aldercar Hall shows

  • Pits No1 and No2 in Broom Close
  • No3 in Near Little Close
  • No4 in Far Close above Urserlys, Nos 6, 7 and 8 in Far Over Close,
  • Nos 9, 10 and 11 in Back Side field.
    The pits were leased to Fletcher and Wood. Deep Hard seam closed.

A plan by J Green at Riddings shows the complex of pits abandoned in August 1830:

  • Nether Chappel Field
  • Far Beast Cliff
  • Middle Beast Cliff
  • Rankard Close
  • Thompson Croft
  • Little Spring
  • Great Spring Close
  • Vickers Close
  • Great Vickers
  • Crab Tree Close
  • Four Acres pits. 

The Hard coal was worked under South Normanton village from 1795-1830.

First Pitmen’s Union

The first Miners Trade Union (the Pitmens Union) was formed in 1830, by Thomas Hebburn (1785-1864) in the North East at Fatfield Colliery, but lasted only until 1832, when it then collapsed.

There had been several other unsuccessful attempts to form unions between 1818 and 1830.

Patron Saint of Miners is Saint Anne

The Patron Saint of miners is Saint Anne, the mother of the virgin Mary and the Miners Hymn (3 known titles) one of which was always sung at the parades many years later.


From 1830 to 1834 there was a Whig Administration, which was followed by a short Tory Government until 1835 when a Whig Government took over again until 1841.

President of Board of Trade, George Eden Auckland (Whig) 1830-1834. He replaced George Huskisson who was knocked down and killed whilst watching the Rainhill speed trials for railway engines at which George Stephenson’s Rocket won!

Eastwood Hall

Eastwood Hall was built around this time for George Walker of Barber Walker Co. 

The fine Georgian mansion would become NCB HQ for No5 Area when the mines were nationalised in 1947 and then HQ for other departments later, such as Marketing, Geology and including Mining Records.

Further use of the Hall was by the Regional Director and Assistants in the 1980s and a Conference Centre afterwards when British Coal was disbanded 1994.

Opposite the entrance to Eastwood Hall was the coach road that led to the residence of Thomas Barber his partner.

Westfield Sough

The Westfield Sough (North Derbyshire) was driven 1780-1830. There were several shafts along the route.

Fatal Accidents 1830

  • Babbington (Gervase Bourne) (Agent James Smith), William Raynor (28) when about to descend the shaft with 2 others at 3.30am on the Friday morning when the deceased stepped between the chains that were twisted instead of fastening the chain around him. He slipped as the Whymsey raised them and he fell to his death to the bottom of the shaft 87 yards (79.2m) deep. He hit his head on the bridge as he fell, 3 Sep 1830.
  • Eastwood (Sam Deakin), Henry Wilkockson, collier attempting to ascend the shaft, set himself in 2 chains but upon reaching the shaft top whilst attempting to throw his tools onto the bank, slipped and fell down the shaft 30 yards (27.4m) deep onto a full corve of coal. He was taken home but died from his injuries about 2 hours later, 20 Nov 1830.


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